Vapor is cloudy and a prism is sharp but both are able to break light because they have a refraction index which is greater than that of air.
Dr. Goeppert-Meyer won the Nobel Prize in physics for her nuclear shell model of atomic nuclei. She described the spin orbit coupling of the nuclear shell structure as waltzing in a room.
Lightning is due to an electrostatic discharge between a cloud and the ground or between two clouds. When the two bodies come into contact, the ions lose their charge, that is, electicity is discharged.
Since land heats up quicker than water does, the air over land gets warmer than the air over the water. Consequently, the warmer air, being less dense, moves up and as the cooler air sinks it forms a wind, more specifically sea breeze.
(Newton's first law) but they revolve around the sun because of the gravitational attraction pulling them into an ellipse.
Korean Taekwondo Vocabulary
Learn a little bit of hangeul and some Korean vocabulary related to taekwondo.



The Korean alphabet (Hangeul) looks difficult, but it's actually easy to learn compared to other Asian languages. I wanted to learn Japanese at one time, but I was put off by the amount of memorization required just to learn the alphabet much less the language itself. So when one of the bilingual students in my Tae Kwon Do class told me that the Korean language was easy, I decided to take a look at it. I was pleasantly surprise to see that one only has to learn six simple vowels and after recognizing a simple pattern, one could intuitively learn all 21 vowel combinations plus the 21 stand-alone vowels. The consonants are easy to learn as well. "The Korean alphabet can be learned by an uneducated man in a matter of hours." (asianinfo.org) All you need is the ability to add one plus one. But in this case, one plus one doesn't equal two it equals eleven. You need to add them as symbols, not as numbers, so 1 + 1 = 11.

Here are the six basic vowels:



a

eo

o

u

eu

i(e)

You can learn the six basic vowels easily enough, because they look much alike. There's just a stick figure with a line poking out at its waist and pointing to the right , then to the left , then to the top , and then to the bottom After these there is just a horizontal and then a vertical line.

In fact, the vowels were conceived even more simply than that. There was originally just a dot to represent the heaven, which later became the short horizontal middle stroke, a horizontal line to represent the earth (horizontal like the earth's horizon), and a vertical line to represent man (a vertical line like a stick figure).

The first two vowels are in the same order as the English vowels: a and then e with an o after it. To remember the next four vowels, just remember the French word for yes, oui. They are, o-u-eu-i. This just about spells oui, but with an eu inserted in it.

Now, take a look at the following table which is set up much like a table of addition in order to see how the vowels are added together:


Basic Vowels+i (or +e)
 
a

eo

o

u

eu

i

ae

e

oe

wi

ui
y +
ya

yeo

yo

yu
 
yae

ye
 
w+
wa

weo
 
wae

we
 

The first two vowel combinations are composed of two basic vowels plus ㅣ(here, + e): ㅏ + ㅣ = a + (e) = ae = ㅐ. ㅓ + ㅣ = eo + (e) = eoe = e = ㅔ. (The double e sound is stronger than the o sound, so it becomes e.)

Everything that has two parallel strokes is pronounced with a y. These are the jamos: ㅑ,ㅕ, ㅛ, ㅠ, ㅒ, andㅖ. You use the sound belonging to the vowel and just put a y in front of it, so:


y  +    =  y  +  a  =  ya  = 
y  +    =  y  +  eo  =  yeo  = 
y  +    =  y  +  o  =  yo  =  ㅛ 
y  +    =  y  +  u  =  yu   =  ㅠ 

For the last two, you just add the Korean letter (here, + e) to it and sound it out with the final e (ㅣ):

  +  e   =  ya  +  e  =  yae  =  

  +  e  =  yeo  +  e  =  yeoe  =  ye  =  ㅖ. (The double e is stronger than the eoe so it becomes ye.)

All of the vowels formed with the basic vowels and form vowels that start with a w:

Written as a table of addition, this looks like:


+
a

eo

ae

e

(e)

w+
ㅗ + ㅏ = ㅘ
w + a = wa
  ㅗ + ㅐ = ㅙ
w + ae = wae
  ㅗ + ㅣ = ㅔ
w + (e) = we

w+
  ㅜ + ㅓ = ㅝ
w + eo = weo
  ㅜ + ㅔ = ㅞ
w + e = we
ㅜ + ㅣ = ㅟ
w + (e) = we

Korean syllable blocks are most often composed of an initial consonant, a vowel, and then a final consonant. The jamos are arranged together in an intuitive pattern. By intuitive I mean that in the most cases the letters fit together the way that you would naturally think they would without following any rules. For example, since the vertically standing has the appearance of a tall vowel it usually goes to the right side of the syllable blocks rather than on the bottom where it would have to be squished down in order to fit. An example is the Korean word for trust (신). 신 (pronounced shin) is composed of the initial consonant (s or sh) the vowel (i) and the final consonant (n). Since the vowel is tall, it seems only natural to put it to the side instead of compressing it to make it fit into the bottom and since is wide, it is natural to let it sit at the bottom of the word rather than stretching it out to fit the right side. Occasionally the composition of syllable blocks doesn't follow this intuitive pattern, but at the beginning it's easier to try to form the syllable blocks using intuition because in most cases you will get it right and you won't have to remember any rules to do it.

For a start, you can learn the sequence and sounds of the fourteen most common initial consonants so that you know where to look up a word when you open up a Korean-English dictionary. You don't have to learn any more consonants than this as a beginner, because the most commonly used final consonants are the same.



g

n

d

l

m

b

s

j

ch

k

t

p

h

ng

The consonants (initials and finals) aren't much more difficult to remember than the vowels. They are based on the pronunciation of the relevant Chinese characters.

In 1446 King Sejong called for extensive research to be conducted in order to create a writing system that didn't require Chinese characters to write the spoken Korean language.

From www.asianinfo.org/asianinfo/korea/history/early_choson_period.htm:

One of his most celebrated achievements was the creation of the Korean alphabet, Han-gul. Aware that his people must have a writing system designed to express the language of their everyday speech, and desirous that all his subjects be able to learn and use it, King Sejong impelled scholars of the Hall of Worthies to devise the alphabet. The Korean alphabet, which consists of 11 vowels and 17 consonants, possesses geometric beauty, simplicity and scientific accuracy, and as such, can be learned by an uneducated man in a matter of hours.

Since this isn't that easy for a non-linguist like me to understand, I used some mnemonic devices to remember the consonants.

The first four consonants are very similar and you can remember them with the word gondola without the vowels. That is: g, n, d, l g(o)nd(o)l(a). So



g

n

d

l

All of the consonants were designed to depict the shapes of the speech organs. For example, "the symbol k [g] depicts the shape of the root of the tongue blocking the throat." and the consonant was designed to depict the shape of the mouth. If you are interested in reading about how the consonants reflect the physical formation of speech, then read pages 129ff. in Ho-Min Sohn's The Korean Language (1999). This book describes the Korean language in historical and cultural terms and doesn't require any Korean language knowledge in order to enjoy. It is written for linguists and thus there are some sections that are difficult for a non-linguist like me to understand, but one can just skim over the sections with specialized terminology and read the more general sections. You can buy this book and others used at www.amazon.com for a low price. (My used copy cost $15 plus $3.50 shipping, but the prices are always changing. The unused book cost $38 at bookstores in 2006. )

I was trying to understand how the consonant letters depicted the shape of the speech organs because I was still getting the symbols for g and n confused. I thought about the shape of my tongue while I said the word Ghana. When I say Gha, then my tongue touches the bottom of my mouth just behind my bottom row of teeth. If I had to draw a picture of my tongue, it would look like a capital L facing the wrong way and this is not even a Korean symbol at all. If I had to draw a picture of my tongue pronouncing na, it would look like this: . I can feel that the top of my tongue touches the roof of my mouth just behind my top row of teeth, so this one makes sense to me. But how was I going to remember g?

I kept trying to see why the inventors of this language thought that a could represent the shape of the mouth pronouncing a g and then I tried pronouncing a k instead of a g. This time it worked. Since k is more aspirated than g, you can actually feel that the root of your tongue does block your throat.

looks like an open mouth and the word mouth begins with the letter m.

looks like an upside down A and has the sound b so just think of a and then b as in the beginning of the English alphabet a, b, c.

It's easy to remember that (ng) comes after (s) and that is the sound ng because it is like the word song if you pretend that the Korean letter for ng is the English letter o in the word song. This is sort of cheating though because I'm mixing the Korean and English letters together to make it work: s( ) + (ng) + ng = song. Actually, the sound ng is only used when is the final consonant and not the initial consonant. As an initial consonant it is only used to make initial vowels (in which case it assumes a ZERO sound quality [Sohn, p.138]) and not to form the sound ng so I cheated in this respect as well.

(s), (j), and (ch) are easy to remember too, because the sound just gets harder (i.e., more aspirated) as more strokes are added to the top. The sound j is harder than s and ch is harder than j.

The Korean letter follows a sort of phonetic logic. It is (g) with an additional stroke, so just think of the sound g ( ) being a little harder (more aspirated) in order to form the sound k ( ).

The letter for t ( ) looks like a capital E so just think of the movie "E.T." with E being the Korean symbol and T being the corresponding sound.

The letter for p ( ) looks like the upside-down math symbol pi (π) which begins with a p.

The letter for h ( ) looks like a "h"ead with a "h"at on it, so just think of "h" for "h"at.

The other initial consonants in addition to the basic fourteen: ㄲ, ㄸ, ㅃ, ㅆ, and ㅉ aren't a problem to learn either because they are just a doubling of their consonants. That is, ㄱ (g) plus ㄱ (g) equals ㄲ (gg) (g + g = gg) and so on.

The remaining final consonants (ㄳ, ㄵ, ㄶ, ㄺ, ㄻ, ㄼ, ㄽ, ㄾ, ㄿ, ㅀ, ㅄ) aren't really worth learning at this point because they don't occur that frequently at all in comparison to the other final consonants and you don't need to know them as a beginner. But they follow phonetic logic too and aren't difficult to learn.



   
Word documents with taekwondo vocabulary in English, Hangeul, and transliterated Hangeul to download.
TKD Vocabulary: Korean to EnglishKorean Lessons: TKD VocabularyTKD Vocabulary: English to Korean